Hola Amigos!

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Finding enough good workers has always been a problem. Today, though, employers have reached a tipping point. Anyone needing more help is faced with a labor pool that’s almost exhausted.

"Many employers now find they can’t hire a sufficient number of capable people or they can’t get anyone at all," reports Tom Maloney, a human resources educator specializing in the Hispanic workforce at Cornell University’s Department of Applied Economics and Management. The only solution for many, according to Maloney, is to look for workers from Mexico, as well as El Salvador, Guatemala and other Central American countries. Interest in Hispanic workers has only grown as they’ve proven themselves capable and enthusiastic.

"Hispanic workers have a positive attitude and a strong work ethic," says Maloney. "Because their whole idea in coming to the United States is to get a job to support their families, they are highly motivated to perform well."

There’s another reason for the new interest in Hispanics in the workforce: Employers need to better serve a changing consumer. With some 40 million residents accounting for 14 percent of the population, Latinos now comprise the largest and fastest growing minority group in the United States, according to the Washington, D.C.,-based Pew Hispanic Center. That’s a lot of shoppers.

"The nation is seeing a tremendous increase in the number of Hispanic consumers," says Myelita Melton, president of Speakeasy Communications, a Mooresville, N.C.,-based training organization specializing in occupational Spanish programs. "Hispanics have $700 billion of disposal income, and that figure is expected to grow to $900 billion by 2007." Further, because Latinos have birth rates twice as high as the average American they are expected to become an even larger consumer force.

Bottom line: Latinos, who now make up some 13 percent of the nation’s workforce, are expected to account for half the growth of the U.S. labor force between now and 2020, according to estimates from Pew.

Keep it Legal

As recent headlines attest, employers must follow the law when hiring Hispanic workers. "Every employer must ensure that all of their workers are legally authorized to work in the United States," says attorney Sara Goldsmith Schwartz, founder and president of Schwartz Hannum PC law firm, Andover, Mass.

The best way to assure valid work authorization, she says, is to complete and maintain the required I-9 forms for every hire. The I-9 form requires that the employer maintain evidence that each employee is eligible to work in the United States. This record-keeping is subject to audit by the Department of Homeland Security. Unfortunately, says Schwartz, the path to I-9 compliance is strewn with pitfalls when documentation is inadequate, expired or false.

"Employers have to do more than just glance at the documents," advises Schwartz. "They need to appear to be legitimate and current." The risk of not doing so is severe. The employer also needs to take note of any expiration dates on supporting documents such as visas, and then enter a tickler at the appropriate date to make sure those documents are renewed. Information about the federal law regarding immigration and the hiring can be found at the U.S. Department of Labor Web site, at www.workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/foreign. Specific information about the I-9 form can be found at the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Web site at www.uscis.gov.

Communication Challenges

No progress, though, comes without cost. In many cases organizations hiring more Hispanics are confronted with a new round of communications problems. "Taking steps to overcome the language barrier shows respect and helps your business function better," advises Maloney. "A growing number of managers are learning some rudimentary Spanish, such as phrases useful in a work setting. Employers may need to hire Spanish interpreters to foster understanding during complex discussions."

Communication, of course, is a two-way affair: Hispanic workers need to increase their mastery of English.

"Only 53 percent of Hispanics say they speak English well," says Melton. "We need to concentrate on the others. They need our patience and encouragement to help create a safer and more dynamic workplace." In many cases, says Melton, employers will invest in programs teaching VESL, or "Vocational English as a Second Language." On-the-job language instruction need not be formal or time consuming.

"You don’t have to be a qualified instructor to teach something," says Donna Poisl, a Gastonia, N.C.,-based author of guidebooks for immigrants. "You can start on an informal basis, during lunch breaks for example." Poisl suggests that each day employees knowledgeable in English teach a few words to their Hispanic colleagues. Those knowledgeable in Spanish can reciprocate.

"A cooperative effort such as this is a great way to learn language," she enthuses. "There’s so much you can do if you try." Whatever your approach, patience is a virtue and necessity.

"I don’t think many people realize how difficult English is to learn as a second language," says Melton. 

Speak Slowly

If it takes some time for many Hispanics to become comfortable with English, what can you do in the short term to assure your instructions are understood? Use short sentences, speak slowly and enunciate properly. All those things help the Hispanic individual keep up with your conversation.

"Put yourself in the other person’s position," advises Poisl. "Then consider this: How would you like to be treated if you were not that knowledgeable about a language?" As you speak, stay alert for responses that indicate understanding or puzzlement. Don’t become irritated if you have to restate a sentence in different words.

Given this language barrier, it’s important to reinforce verbal instructions with visual cues. "To effectively train and develop Hispanic employees, demonstrate what you want them to do," advises Carlos Conejo, president of Multicultural Associates, a Thousand Oaks, Calif.-based consulting organization specializing in the Hispanic workforce. "Then have the employees practice in front of you."

That last part is important, Conejo stresses. "You want employees to make mistakes in front of you because you can turn the situation into a coaching session," he says. That can anticipate performance and safety problems down the road. Following practice time, advises Conejo, allow the employees to give feedback.

"Hispanics are not accustomed to being asked opinions," Conejo says. "Asking for input will create a dialog that increases trust." 

Communicate Safety

The language barrier becomes particularly dangerous when it increases the risk of injury.

"Employers need to communicate good safety practices to employees who may not be proficient in English," warns attorney Sara Goldsmith Schwartz, president of Schwartz Hannum, Andover, Mass., a law firm that defends business clients and non-profit organizations in employment-related litigation. Failure to provide adequate instruction can lead to fatalities and costly litigation for negligence if someone gets hurt on the job. Provide safety manuals in the employees’ native languages, advises Schwartz. "Hire an expert to assure the accurate translation of your safety manual."

Not all employers have been successful in this risky area. "The injury rate is very high for Hispanic employees, and we suspect it has to do with the language barrier," reports Conejo, who recommends employers assure workers can read and understand safety words encountered in signs such as "Danger, High Voltage" or "Keep Hands Away."

"As an employer, you will be respected from square one because Hispanic workers come from a hierarchical society where authority is not questioned," says Maloney. "Part of their cultural value system is to be very dedicated to pleasing the boss." Respect for authority, though, is a two-edged sword. On the positive side, it means workers are eager to perform as directed. On the negative, they may fail to communicate critical information which they fear will upset the boss. "Many times workers will hesitate to be entirely forthcoming when they perceive doing so may result in their supervisor hearing something he or she doesn’t want to hear," explains Maloney.

This communications failure results from experience in a Hispanic culture where workers are often terminated for events beyond their control. Fearing for their jobs, workers may continue to use a faulty tool, for example, rather than admit something broke on their watch. And they may fail to report injuries, since in their native lands — which often lack disability and health insurance — employees are often terminated and replaced following accidents.

Finally, Hispanic employees may try to please the boss by affirming non-existent knowledge of certain work procedures. That often results in performance issues. 

Appreciate The Culture

All these problems can be reduced if the manager takes pains to encourage two-way dialog. How?

"You can start by understanding that family is incredibly important to Hispanic workers," suggests Maloney. "Indeed, a main reason why they come to the United States is to send money home to their families."

Establish workplace policies and resources, then, that recognize and assist a family mentality. Provide easy and affordable access to long-distance phone calls home. Give phone cards as incentives and gifts and express personal interest by asking about the well-being of their relatives. Arrange for easy and affordable transmission of money home. These steps show you understand and support the Hispanic love for family. They go a long way toward building loyalty and assuring a smoothly functioning workforce. To return to our topic of safety, it’s worth adding that many Hispanic workers will often take unnecessary risks to get their tasks done quickly.

To avoid this, advises Melton, tie in the need for safe work practices with the individual’s love for family. He advises saying something like this: "Don’t do it this way, because it is not safe. Think about your family. We want to send you home in the same condition you came here."

It’s possible for employers to reduce conflicts and improve performance as more Hispanic employees join the workforce. The secret lies in improving communication skills, placing more emphasis on safety and respecting different values. 

Phillip M. Perry is a freelance writer based in New York, N.Y. You can e-mail him at phil@pmperry.com.

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