Biopesticide Resistance And Selective Pesticides

Insects Resistant To Biopesticides

There are many instances in which insect pest populations have developed resistance to selective (alternative) pesticides or biopesticides. Here are several examples:

• Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) resistant to azadirachtin (e.g., Azatin)

• Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistant to spinosad (e.g., Conserve)

• Leafminer (Liromyza trifolii) resistant to both spinosad (e.g., Conserve) and abamectin (e.g., Avid)

• Greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) resistant to buprofezin (e.g., Talus)

• Sweet potato whitefly B-biotype (Bemisia tabaci) resistant to pyriproxyfen (e.g., Distance)

• Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki (Dipel)

Selective Pesticides

Categories of pesticides (insecticides and miticides) used in greenhouses or nurseries that may be considered as either selective (alternative) pesticides or biopesticides, including the common name (=active ingredient) and trade name (in parentheses):

Insect Growth Regulators

• Azadirachtin (Azatin, Ornazin, Molt-X and Azatrol)

• Buprofezin (Talus)

• Cyromazine (Citation)

• Diflubenzuron (Adept)

• Etoxazole (TetraSan)

• Fenoxycarb (Preclude)

• Kinoprene (Enstar II/AQ)

• Novaluron (Pedestal)

• Pyriproxyfen (Distance)

Insecticidal Soap

• Potassium salts of fatty acids (M-Pede)

Horticultural Oils

• Petroleum-based oil (Ultra-Pure Oil, SuffOil-X and PureSpray Green)

• Selective Feeding Blockers

• Flonicamid (Aria)

• Pymetrozine (Endeavor)


• Clofentezine (Ovation)

• Hexythiazox (Hexygon)

Beneficial Bacteria & Fungi

• Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki (Dipel)

• Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Gnatrol)

• Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard)


• Saccharopolyspora spinosa – spinosad (Conserve)

• Streptomyces avermitilis – abamectin (Avid)

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