Energy-Efficient Annuals: The Complete Series

Pentas & Verbena
In pentas and verbena, time to flower decreased as average daily temperature increased from 58 to 79°F.

Angelonia & Browallia
In both angelonia and browallia, time to flower decreased as average daily temperature increased from 58 to 79°F. 

Vinca & Wax Begonia
Vinca and wax begonia are day-neutral crops and thus, day length has no effect on flowering time.

Dahlia & Osteospermum
Dahlia is typically a facultative short-day plant. Although plants flower under long days, flowering is accelerated under short days. In contrast, osteospermum is typically a facultative long-day plant, meaning plants flower faster under long days. 

Rudbeckia & Viola
Rudbeckia is an obligate long-day crop and must be grown under long days for flowering. Violas do not require long days for flowering, but flower faster if grown under long days.

Geraniums & Zinnias
crop timing data on seed geranium and zinnia and then use the information to estimate greenhouse heating costs at different locations, growing temperatures and finish dates. 

Petunias
Petunias are among the top 10 bedding plants produced in the United States. This article in the series looks at research into petunia flowering time and plant quality under different temperature and DLI conditions.

Ageratum & Cosmos
How do daily temperature and light interval affect these crops? Read this article for the answers, in addition to estimated greenhouse heating costs and finish dates.

Dianthus & Snapdragon
Check out information on dianthus and snapdragon, including crop timing data to estimate greenhouse heating costs at different locations, temperatures and finish dates.

Timing Marigolds
Read crop timing data for two species of marigold and estimate heating costs at different temperatures and different locations.

Scheduling Bedding Plants
Hitting finished dates while growing at lower temperatures and lower heating costs is easier to plan with Virtual Grower software.

Perfecting Temps & Light
Read about how temperature and light influence crop timing and plant quality.

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